Genghis Khan--originally named Temujin--united the Mongol empire and ruled over it successfully. First he strengthened the military by forcing every man of age to fight, then he chose his officers and instead of being biased because of what tribe they belonged to, he focused on their loyalty. The strict military strength became tradition and boys at the age of even three or four began learning how to ride a horse bare-back and practicing with a bow and arrow. After the Mongols were united, their powerful military force went after the settled peoples in China.
Administration[ edit ] At the same time the Mongols imported Central Asians to serve as administrators in China, the Mongols also sent Han Chinese and Khitans from China to serve as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara in Central Asia, using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands.
The Mongols rarely drank milk fresh, but often used it to create other foods, including cheese and yogurt. The Mongols had a unique way of slaughtering their animals to get meat. The animal was laid on its back and restrained. Then the butcher would cut its chest open and rip open the aortawhich would cause deadly internal bleeding.
Animals would be slaughtered in this fashion because it would keep all of the blood inside of the carcass. Once all of the internal organs were removed, the blood was then drained out and used for sausages. During the winter, the Mongols also practiced ice fishing.
The Mongols rarely slaughtered animals during the summer but if an animal died of natural causes they made sure to carefully preserve it. This was done by cutting the meat into strips and then letting it dry by the sun and the wind.
During the winter sheep were the only domestic animal slaughtered, but horses were occasionally slaughtered for ceremonies. The meal, usually meat, was cut up into small pieces. Guests were served their meat on skewers and the host determined the order of serving.
The meat was eaten with fingers and the grease was wiped on the ground or on clothing. The most commonly imported fare was liquor. Most popular was Chinese rice wine and Turkestani grape wine.
Genghis Khan was first presented grape wine in but he dismissed it as dangerously strong. Drunkenness was common at festivals and gatherings.
Singing and dancing were also common after the consumption of alcohol. Due to Turkestani and Middle Eastern influences, noodles started to appear in Mongol food.
Spices such as cardamom and other food such as chickpeas and fenugreek seeds also became part of the diet due to these external influences.
Yuan dynasty coinage Obverse: It was backed by precious metals and silk. His authority established united measure based on sukhe or silver ingot, however, the Mongols allowed their foreign subjects to mint coins in the denominations and use weight they traditionally used.
Marco Polo wrote that the money was made of mulberry bark.
But the forest nations of Siberia and Manchuria still paid their taxes in goods or commodities to the Mongols. As did the khanates of the Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate minted their own coins in gold, silver and copper. Trade routes[ edit ] The Mongols had a strong history of supporting merchants and trade.
Genghis Khan had encouraged foreign merchants early in his career, even before uniting the Mongols. Merchants provided him with information about neighboring cultures, served as diplomats and official traders for the Mongols, and were essential for many needed goods, since the Mongols produced little of their own.
Mongols sometimes provided capital for merchants, and sent them far afield, in an ortoq merchant partner arrangement.
As the Empire grew, any merchants or ambassadors with proper documentation and authorization, received protection and sanctuary as they traveled through Mongol realms. Well-traveled and relatively well-maintained roads linked lands from the Mediterranean basin to China, and greatly increasing overland trade, and resulting in some dramatic stories of those who traveled what became known as the Silk Road.
Missionaries such as William of Rubruck also traveled to the Mongol court, on missions of conversion, or as papal envoys, carrying correspondence between the Pope and the Mongols as attempts were made to form a Franco-Mongol alliance. It was rare though for anyone to travel the entire length of the Silk Road.
Instead, traders moved products much like a bucket brigade, with luxury goods being traded from one middleman to another, from China to the West, and resulting in extravagant prices for the trade goods. Merchants brought clothing, food, and other provisions to the imperial palaces, and in return the Great Khans gave the merchants tax exemptions, and allowed them to use the official relay stations of the Mongol Empire.
Merchants also served as tax farmers in China, Russia and Iran. If the merchants were attacked by bandits, losses were made up from the imperial treasury. Because of money laundering and overtaxing, he attempted to limit abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the ortoq businesses.
He decreed all merchants must pay commercial and property taxes, and he paid off all drafts drawn by high-ranking Mongol elites from the merchants. This policy continued in the Yuan dynasty.
The Golden Horde permitted German merchants to trade in all of its territories including Russian principalities in the s. The fall of the Mongol Empire led to the collapse of the political unity along the Silk Road.
Also falling victim were the cultural and economic aspects of its unity.UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for. Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .
history. The Mongol Empire Of Chinggis Khan Mongols epitomized nomadic society and culture. Their survival depended on the. political history by destroying existing polities and even -as in the case of.
Assyria and Harappa -whole civilizations. They have also generated major. Kublai Khan was the grandson of the infamous Genghis Khan and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He was the first Mongol to rule over all of China when he conquered the Song Dynasty of Southern China in Get all the facts on .
Food in the Mongol Empire. During the Mongol Empire there were two different groups of food, "red foods" and "white foods". "White foods" were usually dairy products and were the main food source during the summer.
The main part of their diet was "airag" or fermented mare's milk, a food which is still widely drunk today. The Mongols rarely . The amazing military achievements of the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successors were largely due to their armies of mounted archers, who possessed great speed and mobility.
After Genghis Khan’s death the Mongol empire passed to his four sons, with overall leadership going to Ögödei. Without Temujin, the man who became Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire would not have occurred.
Genghis Khan was a strong, charismatic, disciplined military genius who gathered all the Mongol and Turkic tribes of Mongolia under his command through political alliances and conquest.