Types[ edit ] Juvenile delinquency, or offending, can be separated into three categories: There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotoningiving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness. Delinquent activity, particularly the involvement in youth gangs, may also be caused by a desire for protection against violence or financial hardship, as the offenders view delinquent activity as a means of surrounding themselves with resources to protect against these threats. Most of these influences tend to be caused by a mix of both genetic and environmental factors.
There is general agreement that behavior, including antisocial and delinquent behavior, is the result of a complex interplay of individual biological and genetic factors and environmental factors, starting during fetal development and continuing throughout life Bock and Goode, Clearly, genes affect biological development, but there is no biological development without environmental input.
Thus, both biology and environment influence behavior. Many children reach adulthood without involvement in serious delinquent behavior, even in the face of multiple risks.
Although risk factors may help identify which children are most in need of preventive interventions, they cannot identify which particular children will become serious or chronic offenders. It has long been known that most adult criminals were involved in delinquent behavior as children and adolescents; most delinquent children and adolescents, however, do not grow up to be adult criminals Robins, Similarly, most serious, chronically delinquent children and adolescents experience a number of risk factors at various levels, but most children and adolescents with risk factors do not become serious, chronic delinquents.
Furthermore, any individual factor contributes only a small part to the increase in risk.
It is, however, widely recognized that the more risk factors a child or adolescent experiences, the higher their risk for delinquent behavior. Page 67 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. The National Academies Press.
Some studies focus on behavior that meets diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder or other antisocial behavior disorders; others look at aggressive behavior, or lying, or shoplifting; still others rely on juvenile court referral or arrest as the outcome of interest. Furthermore, different risk factors and different outcomes may be more salient at some stages of child and adolescent development than at others.
Much of the literature that has examined risk factors for delinquency is based on longitudinal studies, primarily of white males.
Some of the samples were specifically chosen from high-risk environments. Care must be taken in generalizing this literature to girls and minorities and to general populations. Nevertheless, over the past 20 years, much has been learned about risks for antisocial and delinquent behavior.
This chapter is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of all the literature on risk factors. Rather it focuses on factors that are most relevant to prevention efforts. For reviews of risk factor literature, see, for example, Hawkins et al.
The chapter discusses risk factors for offending, beginning with risks at the individual level, including biological, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive factors. Social-level risk factors are discussed next; these include family and peer relationships.
Finally, community-level risk factors, including school and neighborhood attributes, are examined. Although individual, social, and community-level factors interact, each level is discussed separately for clarity.
These individual factors include age, gender, complications during pregnancy and delivery, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and substance use. Some factors operate before birth prenatal or close to, during, and shortly after birth perinatal ; some can be identified in early childhood; and other factors may not be evident until late childhood or during adolescence.
To fully appreciate the development of these individual characteristics and their relations to delinquency, one needs to study the development of the individual in interaction with the environment. In order to simplify presentation of the research, however, this section deals only with individual factors.
Age Studies of criminal activity by age consistently find that rates of offending begin to rise in preadolescence or early adolescence, reach a peak in Page 68 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Some lawbreaking experience at some time during adolescence is nearly universal in American children, although much of this behavior is reasonably mild and temporary.
Although the exact age of onset, peak, and age of desistance varies by offense, the general pattern has been remarkably consistent over time, in different countries, and for official and self-reported data.
For example, Farringtonain a longitudinal study of a sample of boys in London the Cambridge Longitudinal Studyfound an eightfold increase in the number of different boys convicted of delinquent behavior from age 10 to age 17, followed by a decrease to a quarter of the maximum level by age The number of self-reported offenses in the same sample also peaked between ages 15 and 18, then dropped sharply by age Jun 11, · Young killers who stay in juvenile court take vastly different paths One man was tried as a juvenile for committing a murder, while two others were tried as adults.
Advocates against JLWOP have tried to bolster their case against incarceration for teen killers with various research. What we have seen is that quite often their information is wrong or misinterpreted. Vital research on the often misunderstood issue of juvenile brain development excusing criminal behavior shows that the Juvenile Crime.
Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e.
individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts.
Understanding the causes of juvenile delinquency is an integral part of preventing a young person from involvement in inappropriate, harmful and illegal conduct. Four primary risk factors can identify young people inclined to delinquent activities: individual, family, mental health and substance abuse.
Often, a juvenile is exposed to risk factors in more than one of these classifications. The juvenile murder arrest rate reached its lowest level in , 83% below the peak; since , the rate has increased slightly, from to per , youth. Note: Rates are arrests of persons ages per , persons ages in the resident population.
Lessons in this unit will emphasize basic knowledge of juvenile crime, causes, offenses, treatment, and risk factors. The reward for learning this unit will be to make significant progress in the lifelong pursuit of becoming a good citizen in a free society.