Saul McLeodpublished Stress arises when individuals perceive a discrepancy between the physical or psychological demands of a situation and the resources of his or her biological, psychological or social systems Sarafino, There are many ways of coping with stress. Their effectiveness depends on the type of stressor, the particular individual, and the circumstances.
Physiological Methods of stress management There are two physiological methods of stress management 1. Different drugs act on the body in different ways: Benzodiazepines BZs are anti-anxiety drugs eg. Librium and Valium that act on the central nervous system the brain.
They are the most widely prescribed drug treatment for clinical disorders. They work by increasing a natural brain chemical neurotransmitter called GABA, which has the effect of slowing activity in neurons and therefore overall brain activity.
Benzodiazepines react with the GABA sites on the outside of the receiving neuron. This opens a channel allowing Cl- ions to enter the neuron. Cl- ions make the neuron less responsive to other neurotransmitters that would usually excite the neuron.
This will result in an individual feeling calmer and much less anxious about things that would otherwise cause stress. Beta-blockersact on the sympathetic nervous system around the body and work by reducing by the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are key agents in the sympathomedullary response to stress.
Essentially, these hormones are blocked by the drug, which attaches itself to beta-adrenergic receptors on the heart and blood vessels.
The receptor is therefore not stimulated and adrenaline and noradrenaline have no effect in increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Medication is a useful option for managing stress, especially in the short term.
It can be used to help individuals deal with a stressful or anxiety provoking event such as redundancy or bereavement.
Once an individual has stabilised their emotional response to stress they can begin to tackle the source of the stress. Evaluation of drugs as a method of stress management Advantages Drugs have been shown to be effective in treating stress.
Drugs are tested in double blind clinical trials with placebo conditions. A wide range of studies have shown that drugs can be highly effective and also safe for the short term treatment of major stress events and anxiety.
Drug treatment can help an individual deal with the emotional side of a problem while they are coming to terms with a major stress event.
They can be used along-side more long term psychological treatments CBT. Drugs are extremely convenient. They are easy to administer and they work very quickly. These drugs are prescribed by a doctor so they are used in a supervised and safe way. Drugs are relatively cheap compared to cognitive behavioural therapy.
In the long run they are unhelpful and can actually hinder the individual and prevent them from addressing the cause of the stress.Performance appraisal is the systematic observation and evaluation of employees’ performance. Some of the most commonly used performance appraisal methods include the judgmental approach, the absolute standards approach, and the results-oriented approach.
Ideally, performance appraisal should be completely accurate and objective.
v The teacher will name many different types of stressors. v If the students feel it is a strong stressor, they will give a hard blow into the balloon. v If the students feel it is a weak stressor, they will give an easy blow into the balloon. But this does little to reduce the damaging effects of stress.
To effectively combat stress, we need to activate the body's natural relaxation response. You can do this by practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, rhythmic exercise, and yoga.
· The different methods of training The participants should be aware of the importance of evaluation in training and of methods that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
Additional remarks you may have on these or other aspects of the teaching methods, aids, and handouts used in the training session.
depth evaluations used in government with a rapid evaluation method and (ii) different methods, program contexts, results information needs, and budgets for evaluation. Based on this exercise, which evaluation methodology is used, for which policies to reduce poverty and inequality.
4. Continued. Be Grateful. Keep a gratitude journal or several (one by your bed, one in your purse, and one at work) to help you remember all the things that are good in your life.