August 21, at
William James argued that one must distinguish between two types of memory — primary and secondary.
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Proceed Atkinson and Shiffrin ,71 claimed that memory consisted of three memory stores which were the sensory store, the short-term store and long-term storm. A stimulus received by our senses such as reading words passes through the stores in that order with some information being lost en route.
Any new information retained will always pass through in this way. If you want to remember something, you repeat it several times in your head therefore increasing the likelihood that it will be transferred into LTM. The main emphasis on this multi-store model of memory is on structure rather than process — concentration is on the way in which our memory is structured, not how it is processed.
The well-known technique for testing the existence of the rehearsal loop is the Brown-Peterson technique. Brown and Peterson and Peterson developed the idea of blocking rehearsal by such tasks as counting backwards.
These were two separate groups of researchers, so the technique was jointly named after them. Participants learned trigrams such as BHK. Once they had been given the trigrams, however, rehearsal was blocked by making them count backwards in threes, for example 60,57,54 etc.
The number of trigrams the participant could recall was recorded. Participants forgot a great deal of the information after only 9 seconds and almost all of it by 18 seconds.
It was concluded that information stayed in STM without rehearsal for a maximum of 18 seconds. Rationale The present study is based upon the Atkinson and Shiffrin multi-store model of memory and will be used to test whether a rehearsal loop actually exists.
I will test this by making the participant count backwards in threes during rehearsal therefore interfering with it and seeing if this does affect memory recall. This method is a replica of the Brown-Peterson technique — it is one of the most prominent experiments involved with testing the existence of the rehearsal loop.
I am also hoping to either increase or decrease the evidence of the Atkinson and Shiffrin multi-store model of memory through my results. A model is only as good as experimental evidence shows it to be — I have to try and prove this. Also this experiment has useful applications to everyday life, especially for students studying for exams who might face interference during their learning.
By performing the experiment, I hope to highlight this fact. Aim To test whether interfering with rehearsal by making the participant count backwards in groups of three actually affects the number of trigrams recalled, therefore supporting the existence of a rehearsal loop.
Design This is an experimental method using independent groups design. The task does not involve a natural situation and the trigrams used are controlled. I am testing this experiment on independent groups rather than using a repeated measures design as firstly there are no order effects e.
The participants will be year old males with above average intelligence and from a mix of cultures.The experiment will be largely based upon that of Brown () and Peterson & Peterson (), which used the technique of blocking rehearsal within the short term memory (STM) by tasks such as counting backwards.
This time however during the 25 seconds rehearsal time, the participants will be asked to perform an interference task, which will be counting backwards in sets of 4 from the number After the 25 seconds, they too will be asked to recall the trigram list and their results will also be recorded.
Nanette highlights the margin-definition of terms in her psychology textbook; Nathan thinks about how each term applies to his own life or to other concepts in the chapter. Nathan is more likely to recall and use the terms better on an essay because _____.
An experiment to investigate Interference in response time.
The independent variable for my experiment was the two-stimulus and the dependent variable was the response time taken in seconds to identify the color of the ink in both the stimuli; colored block stimuli and contradictory ink stimuli. The interference task is designed to "block" STM by giving you something to concentrate on that lasts longer than the 20 second duration of STM and involves more capacity than the things STM can handle at once.
This is a good example of an experimental control that reduces a confounding variable. Dec 22, · Free Essay: Outline and Evaluate Models of Memory. As it also suggests, rehearsal was prevented by an interference task, meaning that the.
Show More. Related. Following the Multi-Store Model, it is believed that STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing, it is believed to be a.