To assess implant stability, there is a need for more physiologically accurate loading conditions, incorporating forces and displacements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom found in the knee joint, as well as understanding the impact of femoral flexion on conformity of tibiofemoral articulation. Understanding how different activities of daily living generate tibial micromotion yields insight into surgical technique considerations, and rehabilitation strategies post-operatively. ASTM F, which specifies knee flexion, Internal-External moment, Medial-Lateral, Anterior-Posterior and Superior-Inferior forces during gait and stair descent activities, supplemented with abduction-adduction moments, as well as varied surgical alignment, was used to create loading profiles. Deep knee bending loading was extracted from the Orthoload database utilizing the same methods.
Gupta, Mahesh Abstract Due to earth's climate change and global warming, environmental consideration in the design of logistic systems is accelerating in recent years. In this research we aim to design an efficient and environmentally friendly logistical system to satisfy both government and carriers.
In particular, we considered three problems in this dissertation: The first problem aims to design an economic and efficient intermodal network including three transportation modes: The intent of this problem is to increase the utilization percentage of waterway system in the intermodal transportation network without increasing the cost to the consumer.
In particular, we develop a real world coal transportation intermodal network across 15 states in the United States including highway, railway and inland waterway. Four boundary models are built to evaluate the potential improvement of the network.
The first boundary model is a typical minimum cost problem, where the total transportation cost is minimized while the flow balance and capacity restrictions are satisfied. An additional constraint that help obtain an upper bound on carbon emission is added in the second boundary model.
Boundary model 3 minimizes the total emission with flow balance and capacity restrictions the same as boundary model 1. Boundary model 4 minimizes the total emission with an additional current cost restriction to achieve a less-aggressive lower bound for carbon emission. With a motivation to minimize the transportation and environmental costs simultaneously, we propose multi-objective optimization models to analyze intermodal transportation with economic, time performance and environmental considerations.
Using data from fifteen selected states, the model determines the tonnage of coal to be transported on roadways, railways and waterways across these states.
A time penalty parameter is introduced so that a penalty is incurred for not using the fastest transportation mode. Our analysis provides authorities with a potential carbon emission tax policy while minimizing the total transportation cost. In addition, sensitivity analysis allows authorities to vary waterway, railway and highway capacities, respectively, and study their impact on the total transportation cost.
Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates that an intermodal transportation policy that uses all the three modes can reduce the total transportation cost when compared to one that uses just two modes. In contrast with traditional vehicle routing problems, the second problem intends to find the most energy efficient vehicle route with minimum pollution by optimization of travel speed.
A mixed integer nonlinear programming model is introduced and a heuristic algorithm based on a savings heuristic and Tabu Search is developed to solve the large case for this problem. Numerical experiments are conducted through comparison with a solution obtained by BONMIN in GAMS on randomly generated small problem instances to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic algorithm.
To illustrate the impact of a time window constraint, travel speed and travel speed limit on total carbon emission, sensitivity analysis is conducted based on several scenarios. In the end, real world instances are examined to further investigate the impact of these parameters.
Based on the analysis from the second problem, travel speed is an important decision factor in green vehicle routing problems to minimize the fuel cost. However, the actual speed limit on a road may have variance due to congestion.
To further investigate the impact of congestion on carbon emission in the real world, we proposed a stochastic green vehicle routing problem as our third problem. We consider a green vehicle problem with stochastic speed limits, which aims to find the robust route with the minimum expected fuel cost.
A two-stage heuristic with sample average approximation is developed to obtain the solution of the stochastic model.
Computational study compares the solutions of robust and traditional mean-value green vehicle routing problems with various settings. Recommended Citation Duan, Xiaoren, "Green logistic network design: Electronic Theses and Dissertations.Recommended Citation.
Khalili, Mohammad, "Design and Development of a Transmission System Based on Magnetorheological Fluids" ().
Electronic Theses and Dissertations. requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Abstract. The purpose of this study was to explore how social workers identify elder abuse, factors they find contribute to or protect from elder abuse, and cultural considerations they identify as important.
Dissertations from James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. JMU Scholarly Commons is the home for electronic dissertations from to the present.
5 UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA · LIBRARY Your thesis and copyright International Schemes The UK is not alone in creating extensive online collections of electronic theses.
Many places like the US, Australia and the Scandinavian countries in particular have been doing this longer and on . GW Libraries at the George Washington University, including the Gelman Library on the Foggy Bottom Campus, Eckles Library at Mount Vernon Campus, and the .