Diseases have provided the stimulus for much of the activity in public health. In a handful of instances, overcoming a disease has removed a barrier to commerce or another desired goal. For example, overcoming yellow fever facilitated construction of the Panama Canal in the early s, and finding a cure for scurvy allowed mariners to make longer voyages of exploration.
A hand pump was located right on Broad Street, and Snow was immediately suspicious. Water samples did not reveal gross contamination, but Snow persisted and began to collect detailed information on where the victims had gotten their drinking water. He obtained the names and the addresses of the first 83 victims who had died by the end of the first week.
He went to their homes and learned from relatives that the vast majority of them had obtained their water from the Broad St. He argued that the pump handle should be removed in order to prevent further contamination. The board was not convinced, but agreed to remove the pump handle as a precaution.
The epidemic quickly subsided. Ultimately, Snow was able to track down victims, the vast majority of whom lived within walking distance of the pump. It was also noted that there was an extremely low incidence of cholera at a nearby work house and also at the Lion Brewery, and both of these businesses had their own water supply.
The workers at another large business used water from the Broad St. The map below shows the location of the pump, and the home or business location of the victims is shown by stacks of small dark marks that are clearly clustered around the pump.
This type of map, which marks the location of disease cases, is now referred to as a "spot map. The timing of her death indicated that she had been the first cholera case.
The cesspool and the pump well were than excavated, revealing that the cesspool, which was within three feet of the well, was leaking, and the wall of the well was decayed, allowing the contamination from the cesspool to seep in.
In retrospect, it appeared that once the child died, there was no further contamination of the well, and the epidemic ended. This graph shows the number of cholera deaths over time.
There is an abrupt increase in cholera deaths at the very end of August. Deaths peak on September 2, when there were about deaths, and the cholera death rate gradually declines to near zero over the next three weeks.
With knowledge of the incubation period for the disease, the shape of an epidemic curve can sometimes provide clues regarding the source of the epidemic. Cholera has an incubation period of only days, and this graph indicates that new cases occurred over a period of about 10 days.
This suggests a "continuous source" epidemic, because new cases continue to occur for more than one incubation period, suggesting an ongoing source of contamination. In retrospect, Snow made several important contributions to the development of epidemiologic thinking: He proposed a new hypothesis for how cholera was transmitted.
He tested this hypothesis systematically by making comparisons between groups of people. He provided evidence for an association between drinking from the Broad St. He argued for an intervention which prevented additional cases removal of the pump handle. The Sanitary Idea In many respects, public health as we think of it today i.
However, the circumstances that propelled the development of public health as a discipline are more complex with many contributing factors. First, there was the notion of the importance of the monarchy and the power of the state. The influence and power of the state could be assessed in many ways including commerce and trade, but also by the size of the population and the health and fitness of the working population.
This crude notion made the work of John Graunt quite compelling, and the importance attached to "numbering the people" grew.
A second factor was the emergence of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, which embraced democracy, citizenship, reason, rationality, and the social value of intelligence the value of information gathering. These ideas provided important underpinnings for public health. In the early s, Jeremy Bentham and his disciples the theoretical radicals developed the philosophy of utilitarianism which provided a theoretic underpinning for health policy and wider social policies.Unit 12 – P2 This assignment is going to describe the origins of public health in the UK from the 19th century to the present.
It will include the historical perspectives of the public health systems ranging from the work of John Snow all the way to the present which is the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).
P2: Describe the Origins of Public Health Policy in the UK from the 19th Century to the Present Day. The law started registering births, marriages and deaths and began to notice differences in areas.
Origins of Public Health By Megan Mackrell Public Health in the 19th Century was non-existent. Poverty, disease and overcrowding was rife. Poverty, disease and overcrowding was rife. It was Edwin Chadwick that brought about the Poor Law Amendment Act in Describe the origins of public health in the UK from the 19th Century to the present day Words May 3rd, 13 Pages In this assignment I am going to describe the origins of public health in the UK from the 19th century to the present day.
The health and wellbeing of children was one of the main aspects of public health that the Ministry of Health were trying to protect, and in a school nurse was assigned to all schools, and her main role to begin with was to check the children’s heads for nits.
Describe the importance of studying the factors associated with outcomes in a systematic way in human populations. economic, political, and philosophical developments all contributed to the emerging idea that the public's health was a legitimate interest of government.
public health is the heart disease that never developed, the.