Faculty Cheri Hansen, Ph. Hansen completed her Ph. Her clinical experience has involved children, adolescents, and adults in community mental health centers, substance abuse treatment centers, and psychiatric hospitals.
With the increased availability of safe, effective contraception, sexual relations are less likely to lead to unwanted pregnancies. When such pregnancies do occur, the accessibility of legal abortion enables parenthood to be more of a choice than an inevitability.
If a much-wanted pregnancy ends in perinatal loss, there is the recognition that a real baby has died, allowing the couple to identify themselves as bereaved parents. The explosion in infant abuse and neglect cases during this time period undercuts the belief that becoming a parent ensures nurturant parenting.
Finally, the reduced stigmatization and greater incidence of women giving birth out of wedlock, as well as the great increase in the percentage of women joining the workforce soon after birth, has dramatically altered women's options for parenting and work.
In short, although the usual sequence of reproduction i. In this chapter, the psychology of reproduction is examined through the lens of these constituents in order to understand how they interact and conflict.
Owing to the voluminous literatures in many of these areas, summaries with additional references for further study are used. In discussing the psychobiologic experience of pregnancy, the family and cultural dynamics that operate in becoming parents, and the development of parental ties, the contributions of psychic, interpersonal, societal, and biologic perspectives are considered and evaluated.
The chapter concludes with a discussion of the repercussions of ART on the nature of parenthood for participating couples and the impact of ART on the definition of parenthood for society at large. Brief clinical vignettes are used to illustrate these issues.
Although these cases are drawn from a psychotherapeutic population, the clients are all high-functioning, intended to represent persons with normative reproductive conflicts and struggles and not Psychology 12 marker with major psychologic disturbance.
Because in this line of work the empathic, consistent understanding of a concerned listener i. The utility of conveying particular insights will probably depend on how much the caregiver is emotionally in tune with the patient.
In the next trimester, the fetus is accorded greater personhood during quickening as anal trends become more prominent, corresponding to the toddler period of increased separation from parents. Finally, during the third trimester, as the mother prepares for delivery, phallic-aggressive wishes, associated with urethral issues, gain ascendance, linked with heightened fears that she or the baby may die, along with the Psychology 12 marker of losing control.
As well as this libidinal regression, earlier modes of cognition typically occur during pregnancy. Ego regression with a distorted perception of reality, magical thinking associated with primary process e. In essence, Freud believed that girls see themselves as castrated boys and turn sexually to their fathers in the Oedipal Complex in order to have a baby from the father as compensation for feeling defective in not having a penis.
For girls this means that the wish to possess a penis is not, as Freud would have it, to become a boy, but instead to have masculine abilities without relinquishing the pleasures of being a girl. Child observations of penis envy in toddlers 22 as well as empiric investigations demonstrating through subliminal stimulation an equation among females of penis with baby 2324 may be interpreted as expressions of those earlier wishes to have both sexual capacities.
Relational Models Both early 678 and more recent 10152526 psychoanalytic theorists have emphasized that a crucial determinant of the course and outcome of pregnancy is the woman's identification with her own mother. In these terms, pregnancy is less about heterosexual i.
Oedipal conflicts related to father or to any sense of primary bodily deficiency in comparison with men, but more about coming to terms with her relationship with mother.
Indeed, historical analysis based on anthropologic data indicates that not only are female assistants an integral presence during childbirth, but until the involvement of male physicians in the 17th century men were virtually absent from the childbirth experience.
In order to prepare to effectively mother her dependent infant through understanding what that baby will experience, she must resonate with that state of infantile helplessness. Women who are threatened by this heightened dependency revived in pregnancy may automatically pull back and away from any needy feelings, sometimes to the extent of disavowing their child's helplessness.
The psychic experience of pregnancy is not a closed system invariably repeating the past. Indeed, a crucial feature of the psychologic work of pregnancy is achieving what Ballou 25 describes as a reconciliation with the loving feelings toward one's mother and inevitable past disappointments i.
Amid bursts of anger and exaggerated slights, a healing process occurs. Things usually simmer down as pregnancy proceeds. Importantly, the vulnerability created by intense, revived dependency and the resolution of this reconciliative process can be constructively facilitated by nurturant supportive figures such as a spouse, medical caregiver, sibling, friend, or in-law, especially if the pregnant woman feels a need to keep distance from her own mother.
She mockingly described how feeble and helpless the mother presented herself, complaining about her osteoporosis and relying on her father for the most basic things, such as reaching for the toilet paper.
Trying to minimize her real hurt and sadness, she described how her mother discouraged a baby shower for her because of the work it would entail. The therapist noted how hard it must be not to have her mother be more there for her as, understandably, she would wish.
She quickly turned to how controlling mother could be, monitoring her activities—which friends she sees and when she should come home—as if she were still a kid.
The therapist observed how much her mother seemed to shift back and forth from appearing like a child needing to be taken care of to becoming an overbearing mother treating her as if she were a child—whereas what she most wanted from her mother was to be regarded as an equal, soon to become a mother herself.
She strongly agreed, and the therapist supported the importance of celebrating her expectant motherhood with a baby shower among the good friends she had. By the next session, the woman appeared much calmer and happier, making no mention of her mother and expressing mild irritation at a self-centered friend.
Without questioning the accuracy of her perceptions of her mother, who did appear to be both needy and controlling, the intensity of this client's reactions suggests how much mother evokes the normal conflicts over dependency that are revived in becoming a mother.
As soon as her disappointment over her mother's inability to compassionately care was pointed out, she bristled at her mother's ministering to her as if she were a child, rejecting in part those needs within her to be nurtured.
Rather than interpret her own internal conflict over dependency, the therapist empathized with her conflicting images of mother, mirroring her own very mixed wishes to depend on mother and to aggressively stand on her own with help from no one.
She was able to accept her therapist's support for her legitimate need to be nurtured as well as her capacity to become a mother herself, without those needs having to be as conflictual.This article is a general timeline of psychology.A more general description of the development of the subject of psychology can be found in the History of psychology article.
Related information can be found in the Timeline of psychiatry article. A more specific review of important events in the development of psychotherapy can be found in the Timeline of psychotherapy article. Become a Science-Based Practitioner! The Positive Psychology toolkit is a science-based, online platform containing + exercises, activities, interventions, questionnaires, assessments and scales.
AO1 than to AO2 and AO3, whereas in question 12 equal weight should be given AO1 and AO3. This will be exemplified and reinforced as part of examiner training and standardisation. MARK SCHEME – AS PSYCHOLOGY PAPER 1 – /1 – SERIES. Mar 16, · Just recently I got my result for PSYA1 (AQA) which was an A, however I done pretty bad on the longer questions.
I got 6 and 4 on the 12 and 8 marker respe. Hi Martian. You are correct in that RGB (Red, Green, Blue) is the additive primary color for light but pigment primary colors are RYB (Red, Yellow, and Blue). Photo: Wikimedia commons There are plenty of folks happy to tell you how to write better, just as any doctor will tell you to “eat right and exercise.” But changing your writing (or eating) habits only happens when you understand why you do what you do.
I can help you with that.